Peter S. White
Selected Publications by Subject
Collected Publications to 2005 Indexed HERE
Newsletter Columns to 2008 Indexed HERE
White, P. S. 2013. Derivation of the extrinsic values of biodiversity from its intrinsic value and both from the first principles of evolutionary biology. Conservation Biology 27:1279-1285.
White, P. S., and J. P. Tuttle. 2013. Ecological sustainability as the fourth landmark in the development of conservation ethics. Conservation Biology 27:952-957.
Hobbs, R.J., D. N. Cole, L. Yung, E.S. Zavaleta, G. H. Aplet, F. Stuart Chapin III, P. B. Landres, D. J. Parsons, N. L. Stephenson, P. S. White, D. M. Graber, E. S. Higgs, C. I. Millar, J. M. Randall, K. A. Tonnessen, and S. Woodley. 2010. Guiding concepts for park wilderness stewardship in an era of global environmental change. Frontiers in Ecology 8:483-490.
White, P.S., L. Yung, D.N. Cole, and R. J. Hobbs. 2010. Conservation at large scales: systems of protected areas and protected areas in the matrix. Chapter 12, pp. 197-212, in Beyond Naturalness. Island Press, Washington, DC.
Cole, D. N., L. Yung, E.S. Zavaleta, G.H. Aplet, F. S. Chapin, F.S., D. M. Graber, D.M., E. S. Higgs, R.J. Hobbs, P.B. Landres, C.I. Millar, D.J. Parsons, J.M. Randall, N.L.Stephenson, K.A. Tonnessen, P.S. White, and S. Woodley. 2008. Naturalness and Beyond: Protected Area Stewardship in an Era of Global Environmental Change. The George Wright Society Forum 25:36-56.
P. S. 2006. Disturbance, the flux of
nature, and environmental ethics at the multipatch scale. Pages 176-198 in D. Lodge and C. Hamlin
(eds.), Religion and the New Ecology: Environmental Responsibility in a World
White, P. S., and A. Jentsch. 2005. Developing multipatch environmental ethics: the paradigm of flux and the challenge of a patch dynamic world. Silva Carelica 49:93-106.
White, P. S., and S. P. Bratton. 1980. After preservation: the philosophical and practical problems of change. Biol Conserv 18:241‑255
Disturbance, patch dynamics, scale
Jenstch, A., and P. S. White. 2019. A theory of pulse dynamics and disturbance in ecology. Ecology 100(7), 2019, e02734.
Wilfahrt, PA, JP Tuttle, PS White, and B. Collins. 2016. Disturbance, productivity, and functional traits in the Central Hardwoods Region. Pages 295-317 in CH Greenberg and B Collins, Natural Disturbances and Range of Variation: Type, Frequency, Severity, and Post-disturbance Structure in Central Hardwood Forests. Springer.
White, P. S. 2014. Pattern and process. Invited contribution to "Paper Trails" in the Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America in honor of the 100th anniversary of the Society.
Wilfahrt, P. A., B. Collins, and P. S. White. 2014. Shifts in functional traits among tree communities across succession in eastern deciduous forest. Forest Ecology and Management 324: 179-185.
White, P. S., B. Collins, and G. Wiens. 2011. Natural disturbances and early successional habitats. In Greenberg, C. H., Collins, B. S., Thompson, F. R. III (eds.), Managing Forest Ecosystems v. 21: Sustaining Young Forest Communities. Springer, New York. 310 p.
Fasth, B. G., M. E. Harmon, J, Sexton, and P. White. 2011. Decomposition of fine woody debris in a deciduous forest in North Carolina. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 138(2):192-206. 2011.
Busing, RT, White, RD, Harmon, ME, and White, PS. 2009. Hurricane disturbance in a temperate deciduous forest: patch dynamics, tree mortality, and coarse woody debris. Plant Ecology 201:351-363.
Meyn, A., P. S. White, C. Buhk, and A. Jentsch. 2007. Environmental drivers of large infrequent wildfires: the emerging conceptual model. Progress in Physical Geography 31:287-312.
White, P. S., and A.
Jentsch. 2004. Disturbance, succession, and community
assembly in terrestrial plant communities. Pages 342-366 in V. Temperton, R. Hobbs, T. Nuttle,
Jentsch, A., C. Beierkuhnlein, and P. S. White. 2002. Scale, the dynamic stability of forest ecosystems, and the persistence of biodiversity Silva Fennica 36:1-8.
White, P. S., and A. Jentsch. 2001. The search for generality in studies of disturbance and ecosystem dynamics. Progress in Botany 62:399-450.
Wilds, S. P., and P.S. White. 2001. Dynamic terrestrial ecosystem patterns and processes. Pages 338-351 in: M. E. Jensen and P. S. Bourgeron (eds.), A guidebook for integrated ecological assessment . New York: Springer-Verlag.
White, P. S., J. Harrod J, J. L.Walker, and A. Jentsch. 2000. Disturbance, scale, and boundary in wilderness management. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-15 2:27-42.
White, P. S., J. Harrod, W. Romme, and J. Betancourt. 1999. The role of disturbance and temporal dynamics. Volume 2: 281-312 in Ecological Stewardship (R. C. Szaro, N. C. Johnson, W. T. Sexton, and A. J. Malk (eds.). Oxford: Elsevier Science.
Busing, R. T., and P. S. White. 1997. Species diversity and small‑scale disturbance in an old‑growth temperate forest: a consideration of gap partitioning concepts. Oikos 78:562-568.
White, P. S., and J. Harrod. 1997. Disturbance and diversity in a landscape context. Pages 128-159 in: Wildlife and landscapes (Bissonette, J., ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag.
White, P. S. 1994. Synthesis: vegetation pattern and process in the Everglades ecosystem. In: Davis S, Ogden J (eds.) Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. St. Lucia Press, Chapter 18: 445-460.
DeAngelis, D. L., and P. S. White 1994. Ecosystems as products of spatially and temporally varying driving forces, ecological processes, and landscapes‑‑a theoretical perspective. Chapter 2, pages 9‑28, in S. Davis and J. Ogden (eds.), Everglades: the ecosystem and its restoration. St. Lucia Press.
Busing, R. T., and P. S. White. 1993. Effects of area on old‑growth forest attributes: implications for the equilibrium landscape concept. Landscape Ecology 8:119‑126.
Busing, R. T., E. E. C. Clebsch, and P. S. White. 1993. Biomass and production of southern Appalachian cove forests reexamined. Can. J. For. Res. 23:760‑765.
Canham, C. D., J. S. Denslow, W. J. Platt, J. R. Runkle, T. A. Spies, and P. S. White. 1990. Light regimes beneath closed canopies and treefall gaps in temperate and tropical forests. Can. J. For. Res. 20:620-
White, P. S. 1987. Natural disturbance, patch dynamics, and landscape pattern in natural areas. Natural Areas J 7(1):14‑22
Pickett, S. T. A., and P. S. White (eds.) 1985. The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New York, pp 3-13.
White, P. S., M. D.MacKenzie, and R. T. Busing. 1985. A critique of overstory/understory comparisons based on transition probability analysis of an old growth spruce‑fir stand in the Appalachians. Vegetatio 64:37‑45
White, P. S., M. D. MacKenzie, and R. T. Busing. 1985. Natural disturbance and gap phase dynamics in southern Appalachian spruce-fir. Can. J. For. Res. 15:233-240.
Harmon, M. E., S. P. Bratton, and P. S. White. 1983. Disturbance and vegetation response in relation to environmental gradients in the Great Smoky Mountains. Vegetatio 55:129-139.
White, P. S. 1979. Pattern, process, and natural disturbance in vegetation. Bot Rev 45:229‑299
Palmer, M.A., E.S. Bernhardt, W.H. Schlessinger, K.N. Eshleman, E. Foufoula-Georgiou, M.S. Hendryx, A.D. Lemly, G.E. Likens, O.L. Loucks, M.E. Power, P.S. White, and P.R. Wilcock. 2010. Mountaintop Mining Consequences. Science 327: 148-149.
Collins, B., P. S. White, and D. W. Imm. 2001. Introduction to ecology and management of rare plants of the Southeast. Natural Areas Journal 21:4-11.
White, P. S., S. P. Wilds, and G. A. Thunhorst. 1998. Southeast. Pages 255-314 in M. J. Mac, P. A. Opler, C. E. Puckett Haecker, and P. D. Doran (eds.). Status and trends of the national’s biological resources. 2 vols. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.
White, P. S., and J. L. Walker. 1997. Approximating nature s variation: selecting and using reference sites and reference information in restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology 5:338-249.
Fiedler, P. L., P. S. White, and R. A. Leidy. 1997. The paradigm shift in ecology and its implications for conservation. In The ecological basis of conservation: Heterogeneity, Ecosystems, and Biodiversity (Pickett, S. T. A., R. S. Ostfeld, M. Shachak, and G.E. Likens, eds.), pp. 83‑92. New York: Chapman & Hall.
White, P. S. 1996. Spatial and biological scales in reintroduction. In Restoring diversity (Falk, D. A., C. Millar, and M. Olwell, eds.), pp. 49‑86. New York: Island Press.
Miller, R. I., S. P. Bratton, and P. S. White. 1987. A regional strategy for reserve design and placement based on an analysis of rare and endangered species distribution patterns. Biol. Conserv. 39:255-268.
Miller, R. I., and P. S. White. 1986. Considerations for preserve design based on the distribution of rare plant in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Environ. Manage. 6:119-124.
White, P. S. 1984.. Impacts of cultural and historic
resources on natural diversity: Lessons from
Bratton, S. P., and P. S. White. 1980. Rare plant management—after preservation what? Rhodora 82: 49-75.
Fang, J., Xiangping Wang, Yining Liu, Zhiyao Tang, Peter S. White and Nathan J. Sanders. 2012. Multiscale patterns of forest structure and species composition in relation to climate in northeast China. Ecography 35: 1072-1082.
Wang, XP, Fang,
JY, Sanders, NJ, White, PS, and Tang, ZY.
2009. Relative importance of
climate vs. local factors in shaping the regional patterns of forest plant
richness across northeast
Meghan W. McKnight, Peter S. White, Robert I. McDonald, John F. Lamoreux, Wes Sechrest, Robert S. Ridgely, Simon N. Stuart. 2007. Putting Beta-Diversity on the Map: Broad-Scale Congruence and Coincidence in the Extremes. PLoS Biology 5(10):002-009.
Qian, H., P. S. White, and J.-S. Song. 2007. Distinguishing the effects of historical and regional versus contemporary and ecological factors on plant species richness: an intercontinental analysis. Ecology 88:1440-1453.
Fridley, J. D., H. Qian, P.
S. White, and M. Palmer. 2006. Plant species invasions along the latitudinal
gradient in the
Qian, H. R. E.
Ricklefs, and P. S. White. 2005. Beta diversity of angiosperms in temperate
floras of eastern Asia and eastern
Ricklefs, R. E., H. Qian, and
P. S. White. 2004. The region effect on mesoscale plant species
richness between eastern
Nekola, J. C., and P. S. White. 2002. Conservation: the two pillars of ecological explanation and the paradigm of distance. Natural Areas Journal 22: 305-310.
Palmer, M. W., Peter G. Earls, Bruce W. Hoagland, Peter S. White, Thomas Wohlgemuth. 2002. Quantitative tools for perfecting species lists. Environmetrics 13:121-137.
Nekola, J. C., and P. S. White. 1999. The distance decay of similarity in biogeography and ecology. Journal of Biogeography 26:867-878.
Withers, M.A., M. W. Palmer, G. L. Wade, P. S. White, and P. R. Neal. 1998. Changing patterns in the number of species in North American floras. Ch.4, pages 23-31 in T.D. Sisk (ed.), Prespectives on the land use history of North America: a context for understanding our changing environment. Biological Science Report USGS/BRD/BSR-1998-0003.
Qian, H., P. S. White, K. Klinka, and C. Chourmouzis. 1999. Phytogeogrpahical
and community similarities of alpline tundras of
Wiser, S. K., R. K. Peet, and P. S. White. 1998. Prediction of rare plant occurrence: a southern Appalachian example. Ecological Applications 8:909-920.
Withers, M.A., M. W. Palmer, G.
L. Wade, P. S. White, and P. R. Neal.
1997. Changing patterns in North American Plant diversity. Retrieved,
Palmer, M. W., and P. S. White. 1994. Scale dependence and the species‑area relationship. Amer. Nat. 144:717‑740.
White, P. S., and J. Nekola. 1992. Biological diversity in an ecological context. Pages 10‑27 in J. R. Barker and D. T. Tingey (eds.), The effects of air pollution on biodiversity. Van Nostrand Reinhold.
White, P. S., and R. I. Miller. 1988. Topographic models of vascular plant richness in the southern Appalachian high peaks. J. Ecol. 76:192‑199.
White, P. S.
1983. East Asian-East North
American floristic relations: the plant
Kuppinger, D.M., M.A. Jenkins, and P.S. White. 2010. Predicting post-fire establishment and persistence of an invasive tree species across a complex gradient. Biological Invasions, in press.
White, P. S. 2009.
The greenness of gardens and the
White, P. S. 2007. Seed exchange: A Johnny Appleseed dilemma. The Public Garden 22(2): 34-35.
S. H., and P.
S. White. 2003. Invasion biology: a major field of study. Annals of the
White, P. S., and J. Randall. 2002. Carrying out a self-assessment on the invasive plant issue. The Public Garden 12 (4): 18-20.
S. 2002. Developing a code of conduct: the North
Carolina Botanical Garden experience.
Pages 22-24 in K. Fay (ed.), Proceedings of the workshop, “Linking
ecology and horticulture to prevent plant invasions”,
White, P. S. 2002. Linking ecology and horticulture to prevent plant invasions: An introduction to the St.Louis Declaration and the Codes of Conduct. Wildland Weeds. Winter 2002, 6(1):4-6.
Reichard, S. H., and P. S. White. 2001.
Horticulture as a pathway of invasive plant introductions in the
White, P. S. 1999. Exploring wilderness in our backyards. The Public Garden April (1999):35-36.
White, P. S., 1999. The
White, P. S., and A. Schwarz. 1998. Where do we go from here? The challenges of risk assessment for invasive plants. Weed Technology 12:744-751.
White, Peter S. 1998. Biodiversity and the exotic species threat. Pages 1-7 in: Exotic pests of eastern forests (Britton, K., ed.). Atlanta: Tennessee Exotic Plant Council and USDA Forest Service.
White, P. S. 1998. Proclaiming the wonder of the plant kingdom around us: The importance of native plant collections. The Public Garden 13 (3, July 1998): 31-32.
White, P. S. 1997. A bill falls due: botanical gardens and the exotic species problem. The Public Garden April 1997:22-25.
White, P. S. 1996. In search of the conservation garden. The Public Garden 11(2):11‑13,40.
White, P. S., J. P. Tuttle, and B. S. Collins. 2018. Old-growth forests in the Southern Appalachians: dynamics and conservation frameworks. Pages 63-82 in A. M. Burton and W. S. Keeton (eds.) Ecology and Recovery of Eastern Old Growth Forests. Island Press.
Schwartz, N, DL Urban, PS White, A Moody, and R.N. Klein. 2016. Vegetation dynamics vary across topographic and fire severity gradients following prescribed burning in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Forest Ecology and Management 365: 1-11.
Tuttle, JP, and PS White. 2016. Structural and compositional change in Great Smoky Mountains National Park since protection, 1930s-2000s. Pages 263-294 in CH Greenberg and B Collins, Natural Disturbances and Range of Variation: Type, Frequency, Severity, and Post-disturbance Structure in Central Hardwood Forests. Springer.
Thiemann, JA, Webster,CR, Jenkins, MA, Hurley, PM, Rock, JH, White, PS. 2009. Herbaceous layer impoverisment in a post-agricultural southern Appalachian landscape. American Midland Naturalist 162:148-168.
White, P. S. 2008.
Discover Life in America, Inc., and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory
P. S. 2007. Forward to the Special Volume on the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory in
White, P. S. 2007. The Science Plan for the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee. The Southeastern Naturalist Special Issue 1:1-26.
Jenkins, M.A., S. Jose, and P. S. White. 2007. Impacts of a forest fungal disease on forest community composition and structure and the resulting effects on foliar calcium cycling. Ecological Applications 17:869-881.
Hayes, M., Moody, A., White, P. S. & Costanza, J. L. 2007. The influence of logging and topography on the distribution of spruce-fir forests near their southern
limits in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Plant Ecology 189:51-70..
White, P. S. 2006. Looking for Linnaea: biological diversity and the ATBI in
. Southeastern Naturalist 5: 378-381. Great Smoky Mountains National Park
White, P. S., and K. Langdon. 2006. The ATBI in the Smokies: An Overview. George Wright Forum 23:18-25.
Langdon, K., P. S. White, and Becky Nichols. 2006. Implications of an ATBI for reserve stewardship. George Wright Forum 23:45-51.
Jenkins, M., and P. S. White. 2002. Cornus florida L. mortality and understory composition changes in western Great Smoky Mountains National Park. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129:194-206.
P. S., S. Wilds, and D. A. Stratton 2001. The distribution of heath balds
White, P. S. et al. 2000. The Science Plan for the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee. Discover Life in America, Gatlinburg, TN. 15 pp.
Wiser, S. K., and P. S. White 1999. High elevation outcrops and barrens of the southern Appalachian mountains. Pages 119-132 in: Savannas, barrens, and rock outcrop plant communities of North America (Anderson, R. C., J. S. Fralish, and J. M. Baskin, eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Harrod, Jonathan C., M. E. Harmon, and P. S. White. 2000. Post-fire succession and twentieth century reduction in fire frequency on xeric southern Appalachian sites. Journal of Vegetation Science. 11:465-472.
Harrod, J., M. E. Harmon, and P. S. White. 1998. Changes in xeric forests in western Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 1936-1995. Castanea 63:346-360.
MacKenzie, M. D., and P. S. White 1998. The vegetation of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: 1935-1938. Castanea 63:323-336.
White PS, Sutter RD (1998) Southern Appalachian grassy balds: lessons for management and regional conservation. In: Peine JD (ed.) Ecosystem management: principles and practices illustrated by a regional biosphere cooperative. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida, pp 375-396
Cogbill, C. V., P. S. White, and S. K. Wiser. 1997. Predicting treeline elevation in the southern Appalachians. Castanea 62:137-146.
Wiser, S. K., R. K. Peet, and P. S. White. 1996. High elevation rock outcrop vegetation of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Journal of Vegetation Science 7:703‑722.
White, P. S., T. Condon, J. Rock, C. A. McCormick, P. Beaty, and K. Langdon. 1996. Wildflowers of the Smokies. Gatlinburg, Tennessee: Great Smoky Mountains Natural History Association. Gatlinburg, Tennessee. 230 pp. [2nd Edition, 2003]
White, P. S. 1995. Conserving biodiversity: lessons from the Smokies. FORUM for Applied Research and Public Policy 10(2):116‑120.
White, P. S., E. Buckner, J. D. Pittillo, and C. V. Cogbill. 1993. High elevation forests: spruce‑fir forests, northern hardwood forests, and associated communities. In "Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States" (W. H. Martin, S. G. Boyce, and A. C. Echternacht, eds.), pp. 305‑338. New York: John Wiley.
Busing, R. T., E. E. C. Clebsch, and P. S. White. 1993. Biomass and production of southern Appalachian cove forests reexamined. Can. J. For. Res. 23:760‑765.
Busing, R. T., P. S. White, and M. D. MacKenzie. 1993. Gradient analysis of old spruce‑fir forests of the Great Smoky Mountains circa 1935. Can. J. Bot. 71:951‑958.
White, P. S., and C. V. Cogbill. 1992. Spruce‑fir forests of eastern North America. Pages 3‑39 in C. Eagar and M. B. Adams (eds.), The ecology and decline of red spruce in the eastern United States. Springer‑Verlag.
Johnson, A. H., S. B. McLaughlin, M. B. Adams, E. R. Cook, D. H. DeHayes, C. Eagar, I. J. Fernandez, D. W. Johnson, R. J. Kohut, V. A. Mohnen, N. S. Nicholas, D. R. Peart, G. A. Schier, and P. S. White. 1992. Why are red spruce declining at high elevations? A synthesis of epidemiological and mechanistic studies. Pages 385‑412 in C. Eagar and M. B. Adams (eds.), The ecology and decline of red spruce in the eastern United States. Springer‑Verlag.
Cogbill, C. V., and P. S. White. 1991. The latitude‑elevation relationship for spruce‑fir forest and treeline along the Appalachian Mountain chain. Vegetatio 94:153‑176.
Callaway, R. M., E. E. C. Clebsch, and P. S. White. 1989. Predicting woody production by canopy trees in forest communities in the western Great Smoky Mountains. Forest Science. 35:338‑348.
Callaway, R. M., E. E. C. Clebsch, and P. S. White. 1987. A multivariate analysis of forest communities in the western Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 118: 107-120
White, P. S. (ed.). 1984. The southern Appalachian spruce‑fir ecosystem: its biology and threats. USDI, National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office, Research/Resource Manage. Rept. SER‑71. 268 p.
White, P. S. 1982. The flora of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an annotated checklist of the vascular plants and a review of previous floristic work. USDI, National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office, Research/Resource Manage. Rept. SER‑55. 219 p.
Hakkenberg, CR, C. Songhe, RK Peet, and PS White. 2016. Forest structure as a predictor of tree species diversity in the North Carolina Piedmont. J. Vegetation Science 27:1151-1163.
Chytry, M., A. Chiarucci, M. Partel, V.D. Pillar, J.P. Bakker, L. Mucina, R.K. Peet, and P.S. White. 2019. Progress in vegetation science: trends over the past three decades and new horizons. Editorial, Journal of Vegetation Science.
DeFrenne, P., et al. 2013. Microclimates moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming. PNAS 110:18561-18565.
Gruhn, Jennifer A., and Peter S. White. 2011. Magnolia grandiflora L. range expansion: a case study of a North Carolina Piedmont forest. Southeastern Naturalist 10 (2): 275-288.
R. Todd, and Peter S. White. 2009. A
new cost-distance model for human accessibility and an evaluation of
accessibility bias in permanent vegetation plots of
Palmer, Michael W., Robert K. Peet, Rebecca
A. Reed, Weimin Xi, and Peter S. White. 2007. A multiscale study of vascular plants in a
North Carolina Piedmont forest.
Ecology 88:2674. Ecological Archives E088-162.
White, P. S., and R. White, Jr.
1996. Old-growth oak and oak-hickory forests. Pages 178-198 In "Eastern
old-growth forests: prospects for rediscovery and recovery" (M. B. Davis,
Palmer, M. W., and P. S. White. 1994. On the existence of ecological communities. Journal of Vegetation Science 5:279‑282.
Reed, R. A., R. K. Peet, M.
W. Palmer, and P. S. White. 1993. Scale dependence of vegetation‑environment
correlations: a case study of a
Lopez, B. E., D. Urban, and P. S. White. 2019. Testing the effects of four urbanization “filters” on forest plant taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity. Ecological Applications
Lopez, B. E., D. Urban, and P. S. White. 2019. Nativity and seed dispersal mode influence species’ responses to habitat connectivity and urban environments. Global Ecology and Biogeography.
Tree architecture and Aralia spinosa
White, P. S. 1988. Prickle distribution in the small tree Aralia spinsoa L. Am. J. Bot. 75:282-285.
White, P. S. 1983. Corner's Rules in eastern deciduous trees: allometry and its implications for the adaptive architecture of trees. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110:203-212.
White, P. S. 1983. Evidence that temperate east North American evergreen woody plants follow Corner's Rules. New Phytol. 95:139-145.
White, P. S. 1984. The architecture of devil's walkingstick, Aralia spinosa“ L. (Araliaceae). J. Arnold Arb., Harv. Univ. 65:403-418.
White, P. S. 1996. Nature's predictability and nature's surprises. Chinkapin 4(2):15-16.