Publications from the Willett Lab:

newest first (undergraduates co-authors denoted with *)


Feel free to contact me for a reprint if you don't have access to these papers



Deconinck, A., and C. S. Willett. Latitudinal cline in hypoxia tolerance does not result in correlated acid tolerance in Tigriopus californicus. bioRxiv 2021.04.10.439290; doi:





Lee, J-Y, C. S. Willett. 2022. Frequent paternal mitochondrial inheritance and rapid haplotype frequency shifts in copepod hybrids. Journal of Heredity. 113:171-183


Lee, J-Y., M. C. Phillips, M. Lobo*, and C. S. Willett. 2021. Tolerance patterns and transcriptomic response to a fluctuation in salinity and to extreme salinities across populations of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus. 94:50–69 Physiological and Biochemical Zoology.


Alston, M. A., J. Lee, M. E. Moore, J. G. Kingsolver, and C. S. Willett. 2020. The Ghost of Temperature Past: Interaction of Previous and Current Thermal Conditions on Gene Expression in Manduca sexta. Journal of Experimental Zoology. 223, jeb213975.


Lima, T. G., R. S. Burton, and C. S. Willett. 2019. The importance of nuclear-nuclear versus mito-nuclear incompatibilities in population crosses of the copepod Tigriopus californicus. Evolution 73:609-620.


Barreto, F. S., E. T. Watson, T. G. Lima, C. S. Willett, S. Edmands, W. Li, and R. S. Burton, 2018. Mitonuclear interactions leave a footprint of accelerated molecular evolution across the nuclear genome of the copepod Tigriopus californicus. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2, 1250–1257.

 Work highlighted News and Views by J. Hui in same issue titled Copepod Incompatibilities


Lima, T. G., and C. S. Willett, 2018. Using pool-seq to search for genomic regions affected by hybrid inviability in the copepod T. californicus. Journal of Heredity. 109(4):469-476


Willett, C. S., and E. Wilson, 2018. Evolution of Melanoma antigen-A11 (MAGEA11) during Primate Phylogeny. Journal of Molecular Evolution. 86:240–253.


Willett, C. S., and C. Son*, 2018. The evolution of the thermal niche across locally adapted populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus. Bulletin of the S. CA Acad. Sci (13Th ICOC conference proceedings). 117(2):150-156.


Lima, T. G., and C. S. Willett, 2017. Locally adapted populations of a copepod species exhibit starkly different gene expression responses to different thermal environments. Ecology and Evolution 12:4312-4325.


Howard, D. J., R. K. Grosberg, M. A. F. Noor, B. B. Normark, D. M. Rand, K. L. Shaw,  and C. S. Willett. 2016. In memoriam: Richard G. Harrison – his life and legacy. Molecular Ecology 25:2333-2336.


Sinclair, B. J., K. E. Marshall, M. A. Sewell, D. L. Levesque, C. S. Willett, S. Slotsbo, Y. Dong, C. D.G. Harley, D, J. Marshall, B. S. Helmuth, and R. B. Huey. 2016. Can we predict ectotherm responses to climate change using thermal performance curves and body temperatures? Ecology Letters. 19:1372-1385. doi: 10.1111/ele.12686


Willett, C. S., T. G. Lima, I. Kovaleva*, L. Hatfield*. 2016. Chromosome-wide impacts on the expression of incompatibilities in hybrids of Tigriopus californicus.  G3 | Genes | Genomes | Genetics 6:1739-1749.


Lima, T. G. 2014. Higher levels of sex chromosome heteromorphism are associated with markedly stronger reproductive isolation. Nature Communications 5:4743.


Willett, C. S. 2013. Gene conversion yields novel gene combinations in paralogs of GOT1 in the copepod Tigriopus californicus. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13:148.


Willett, C. S. 2012. Quantifying the elevation of mitochondrial DNA evolutionary substitution rates over nuclear rates in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus. Journal of Molecular Evolution 74:310-318.


Willett, C. S. 2012. Hybrid breakdown weakens under thermal stress in population crosses of the copepod Tigriopus californicus. Journal of Heredity 103:103-114.


Willett, C. S. 2011. Complex deleterious interactions associated with malic enzyme may contribute to reproductive isolation in the copepod Tigriopus californicus. PLoS ONE 6:e21177.


Willett, C. S. 2011. The nature of interactions that contribute to postzygotic reproductive isolation in hybrid copepods. Genetica 139: 575-588.


Willett, C. S. 2010. Potential fitness tradeoffs for thermal tolerance in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus. Evolution 64: 2521-2534.


Willett, C. S. and J. T. Ladner. 2009. Investigations of fine-scale phylogeography in Tigriopus californicus reveal historical patterns of population divergence. BMC Evolution. 9:139.


Willett, C. S. 2008. No evidence for faster male hybrid sterility in population crosses of an intertidal copepod (Tigriopus californicus). Genetica 133:129-136.


Willett, C. S. 2008. Significant variation for fitness impacts of ETS loci in hybrids between populations of Tigriopus californicus. Journal of Heredity 99:56-65.


Willett, C. S. and J. N. Berkowitz*, 2007. Viability effects and not meiotic drive cause dramatic departures from Mendelian inheritance for malic enzyme in hybrids of Tigriopus californicus populations.  Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20:1196-1205.


Willett, C. S. 2006. Deleterious epistatic interactions between electron transport system protein-coding loci in the copepod Tigriopus californicus. Genetics 173:1465-1477.

Paper recommended by Faculty of 1000


Burton, R. S., E. C. Metz, J. M. Flowers, and C. S. Willett. 2005. Unusual structure of ribosomal DNA in the copepod Tigriopus californicus: Intergenic spacer sequences lack internal sub-repeats. Gene 344:105-113.


Willett, C. S., and R. S. Burton, 2004. Evolution of interacting proteins in the mitochondrial electron transport system in a marine copepod. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 21:443-453.


Willett, C. S., and R. S. Burton, 2003. Environmental influences on epistatic interactions: viabilities of cytochrome c genotypes in interpopulation crosses. Evolution 57:2286–2292.

Paper recommended by Faculty of 1000


Willett, C. S., and R. S. Burton, 2003. Characterization of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene and its regulation in a euryhaline copepod. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 135: 639-646.


Willett, C. S. and R. S. Burton, 2002. Proline biosynthesis genes and their regulation under salinity stress in the euryhaline copepod Tigriopus californicus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 132:739-750.


Willett, C. S., and R. S. Burton, 2001. Viability of cytochrome c depends on cytoplasmic background in Tigriopus californicus. Evolution 55:1592-1599.


Willett, C. S., 2000. Evidence for directional selection acting on pheromone-binding proteins in the genus Choristoneura. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17:553-562.


Willett, C. S., 2000. Do pheromone binding proteins converge in amino acid sequence when pheromones converge? Journal of Molecular Evolution 50:175-183.


Willett, C. S. and R. G. Harrison, 1999. Insights into genome differentiation: Pheromone binding protein variation and population history in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Genetics 153:1743-1751.


Willett, C. S. and R. G. Harrison, 1999. Pheromone binding proteins in the European and Asian corn borers: No protein change associated with pheromone differences. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 29:277-284.


Willett, C. S., M. J. Ford,  and R. G. Harrison, 1997. Inferences about the origin of a field cricket hybrid zone from a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny. Heredity 79:484-494.


Published preprint papers:


Lee, J-Y, C. S. Willett. Widespread paternal leakage and rapid shifts in paternal haplotype frequencies in marine copepod hybrids (Tigriopus californicus). bioRxiv 2021.05.10.443310; doi:; published in J. of Heredity (2022) (






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