PAR Proteins and Asymmetry

Movies of PAR-2 and P granules During Asymmetric Division from:
C. elegans PAR Proteins Function by Mobilizing and Stabilizing Asymmetrically Localized Protein Complexes
Rebecca J. Cheeks, Julie C. Canman, Willow N. Gabriel, Nicole Meyer, Susan Strome, and Bob Goldstein
Current Biology (2004) 14:851–862



PAR-2 Associates with New Cortex Generated During Flow


GFP::PAR-2-expressing embryo viewed by dual transmitted light (left) and spinning-disk confocal microscopy (right) during the period of cortical and central cytoplasmic flow. Arrow indicates that central cytoplasmic flow is occurring in the direction shown. Black dots mark the extent of new cortex. GFP::PAR-2 associates with new cortex with a 3-4 min delay. Embryo is oriented with posterior down.



P Granules Moving in a Wild-Type Embryo


GFP::PGL-1-expressing embryo viewed by dual DIC (left) and epifluorescence (right) microscopy. Top is central plane, bottom is the upper cortex. The embryo is oriented with the posterior to the right.




P Granules Move Posteriorly but Are Destabilized in the Absence of PAR-1

GFP::PGL-1-expressing embryos viewed by dual DIC (bottom) and epifluorescence (top) microscopy. Left is wild-type, right is par-1(RNAi). Embryos are oriented with posterior to the right.




P Granules in a par-2(RNAi) Embryo

GFP::PGL-1 expressing par-2(RNAi) embryo viewed by dual DIC (right) and epifluorescence (left) microscopy. Top is central plane, bottom is the upper cortex. The embryo is oriented with the posterior to the right.




P Granules in a par-2(RNAi) par-1(RNAi) Embryo

GFP::PGL-1 expressing par-2(RNAi) par-1(RNAi) embryo viewed by dual DIC (right) and epifluorescence (left) microscopy. Top is central plane, bottom is the upper cortex. Embryo is oriented with posterior to the right.

 


P Granules in a par-3(RNAi) embryo

GFP::PGL-1-expressing par-3(RNAi) embryo viewed by dual DIC (right) and epifluorescence (left) microscopy. Top is central plane, bottom is the upper cortex. The embryo is oriented with the posterior to the right.




P Granules in a par-3(RNAi) par-1(RNAi) embryo

GFP::PGL-1-expressing par-3(RNAi) par-1(RNAi) embryo viewed by dual DIC (right) and epifluorescence (left) microscopy. Top is central plane, bottom is the upper cortex. Embryo is oriented with posterior to the right.

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